Vitamin E is the name for a body of fat-soluble (meaning it is absorbed through and stored in the body fat to be used as the body needs it) vitamins that women require 3 milligrams of and men require 4 milligrams of each day.
Vitamin E is used to treat various ailments ranging from heart disease to the hardening of blood vessels and arteries to certain cancers.
1. Vitamin E Protects Cell Membranes
One of the most important functions of vitamin E in the body is protecting cells from becoming oxidized. When oxygen within the body becomes metabolized, it results in the creation of free radicals. Free radicals are molecules that steal electrons from other molecules and this process inflicts damage on cellular membranes (1).
Vitamin E has powerful antioxidative properties that neutralizes free radicals by giving its own electrons to the electron lacking free radical molecule which limits the destruction done to cell membranes.
A study on the antioxidative effects of vitamin E on acetone induced oxidative stress on red blood cell membranes was carried out on male rats and found that vitamin E does in fact protect red cell membranes from damage (2).
2. Vitamin E Eases Premenstrual Symptoms
Premenstrual syndrome is any of a wide range of symptoms felt by a woman in the days before her menstruation begins. Symptoms of premenstrual syndrome include;
Tender or swollen breasts
Pain in muscles or joints
Food cravings or a change in appetite
Backache and or headache
Stomach issues including constipation, bloating and diarrhea
Vitamin E (specifically the gamma tocopherol found in vitamin E) limits prostaglandin production which can ease breast tenderness and cramping (3).
Vitamin E is often suggested for women who suffer from low levels of oestrogen and it also increases the flow of blood to the uterus as well as acting as anti inflammatory for an inflamed uterine lining (4).
3. Vitamin E Improves Vision
Macular degeneration is a disease of the eye that is currently the leading cause of loss of vision or complete blindness worldwide. Macular degeneration affects upwards of 10 million Americans and is currently incurable (5).
Macular degeneration occurs when the most central part of the eye's retina (the light-sensitive lining of tissue located at the very back of the eye) begins to deteriorate. Our retina is what makes it possible for us to see images, drive, recognize faces and colours and see fine details.
There are three stages to macular degeneration; early, intermediate and late. Regular eye exams are vital to catching the disease in its earliest stages. There is no one known exact cause for macular degeneration but some risk factors include smoking, race (caucasians are genetically most susceptible to the disease) and those with macular degeneration in their family history.
The National Eye Institute sponsored the Age-related Eye Disease Study carried out on almost 5 thousand participants which found that macular degeneration was somewhat linked to the nutrients we absorb. The study also showed that high risk participants who took vitamin E and C supplements showed a slowed progression of macular degeneration by an average of 25 percent. Almost ten studies further studied carried out on a smaller scale have echoed these results (6).
Vitamin E has also been shown to have positive effects in the treatment of cataracts. Cataracts is the world's prevailing cause of loss of vision in those over the age of 40 and even though it is treatable, the leading cause of permanent loss of vision in the world. Cataracts occurs in 3 different types but can be explained as the clouding of the natural lense of the eyes. A few symptoms of cataracts include;
Worsening light sensitivity of the eyes
Struggling to see at night
A seemingly yellowing of colours
A rapidly changing contact lense or eyeglass prescription
A study in Wisconsin including over 3 thousand adults showed that the risk of cataracts development was about 60 percent lower in participants who received vitamin E supplement (7).
4. Vitamin E Thickens Your Hair And Prevents Premature Balding
Vitamin E stimulates capillary growth in the scalp. Capillaries are fine branches of blood vessels which connect venules and arterioles. When capillaries are operating at optimum strength, more blood is pumped to the scalp keeping the scalp healthier. This keeps hair from becoming weak and falling out of the scalp (8).
The antioxidants in vitamin E also play a part in staving off the development of grey hairs. The antioxidants also ensures the health and nourishment of hair follicles which promotes faster growth of the hair (9).
A leading cause of hair loss is an imbalance of pH levels in the scalp and overproduction of natural oils. Your scalp overproduces oils when through your sebaceous glands when your scalp is too dry. Dry scalp in turn leads to dandruff, itching of the scalp and ultimately hair loss. Vitamin E balances unequal pH levels and moisturises the scalp, calming the sebaceous glands.
Vitamin E has emollient attributes which enables it to seal moisture into the shaft of the hair keeping the hair conditioned.
5. Vitamin E Repairs Damaged Skin
Vitamin E is both an antioxidant and a fat-soluble nutrient.
Vitamin E can be used to treat hyperpigmentation in the skin. Hyperpigmentation is a skin condition in which areas on the skin hold a surplus of melanin, making those specific areas darker than the rest of the skin (10).
Vitamin E is a skin moisturizer and can be used to treat sun burn and dark circles that form under your eyes, as well as ensuring smoother and softer skin when applied topically.
Vitamin E assists the growth of new cells and speeds up the rate by which cells regenerate. This coupled with the protection it provides from free radical induced cell damage and boosting the production of collagen works to treat the formation of wrinkles on the skin (11).
Vitamin E can also be used to treat cracked and dehydrated cuticles as well as dry, painful, chapped lips.
6. Vitamin E Prevents The Development Of Diseases
The progression of cancer and heart disease are greatly aided by the damage free radicals do to healthy cells. Vitamin E’s antioxidant properties protect cells from free radicals which in turn can prevent or slow the onset of various chronic diseases (12).
7. Vitamin E Lowers Cholesterol In The Body
High cholesterol puts you at risk for plaque build up and ultimately a heart attack or stroke. Vitamin E is made up of 8 compounds, one of which is tocotrienols. Tocotrienols lower cholesterol levels in the liver because they stop or inhibit the production of the HMG-CoA reductase enzyme (the enzyme that has control of the metabolic pathway responsible for cholesterol production) (13).
A Malaysian study found that ingesting tocotrienol extracts daily can reduce your levels of LDL cholesterol (known as the bad cholesterol) by around 15 percent and your overall levels of cholesterol by about 11 percent (14).
If LDL cholesterol levels are not kept to a minimum (usually through a bad diet and lack of exercise) you could be at risk of;
An imbalance of bile in the digestive system which could result in gallstones
Intestinal ischemic syndrome ( when arteries supplying blood to the stomach and kidneys become blocked with plaque buildup)
A blockage in the brain or a stroke
A heart attack
A lessened flow of blood to the limbs resulting in pain, numbness and in extreme cases, the development of gangrene
Discomfort and pain in the chest (15)
8. Vitamin E Improves Your Sexual Health
Low levels of vitamin E in the body cause a notable decrease in libido, infertility and impotence (16).
Vitamin E works to improve blood circulation. Healthy circulation is the potentially most important part of sexual functioning (most notably for men to be able to achieve and maintain an erection). Vitamin E works best for sexual health when combined with vitamin C (17).
Vitamin E raises levels of testosterone which boosts the libido and sexual stamina in men. Vitamin E also improves quality. A study found that when paired with selenium, vitamin E improved the motility of the participants sperm (18).
This, coupled with vitamin E reducing other sperm defects, makes vitamin E a powerful tool in ensuring fertility in men and helping to achieve healthy conception (19). Vitamin E also increases the amount of cervical mucus produced in women. This cervical mucus helps sperm to stay alive and viable for several days. Vitamin E also increases the general health of eggs in women, lowering the chance of miscarriages or babies born with birth defects.
Vitamin E is also an antioxidant which protect cells from age speeding damage done by free radicals, aiding circulation and vitality (20).
9. Vitamin E Protects The Brain
The rate of cognitive decline tends to rise as we age. Some people develop mild cognitive impairment which causes noticeable changes in a person's cognitive abilities such as marked memory loss and a decline in thinking skills. Those who do have mild cognitive impairment are at higher risk of developing dementia or Alzheimer’s.
A study carried out on patients that had Alzheimer's and mild cognitive impairment showed that they all suffered from a lack of vitamin E. The Neurobiology Of Aging also published a paper stating that people with the highest recorded levels of vitamin E were up to 15 percent less likely to develop mild cognitive impairment (21).
Vitamin E is a powerhouse antioxidant that protects the neurons in the brain, which has a bearing on our brains aging at a healthy rate (22). A Chicago study shows that eating a diet high in vitamin E could slow the aging of the brain significantly. The reduction of cognitive decline in those consuming vitamin E rich diets was equivalent to a 9 year decrease in age.
10. Vitamin E May Restore Hearing
Idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss or sudden hearing loss is a sudden onset of deafness that affects up to 4 thousand Americans annually, the cause of which is not always easy to pinpoint (sometimes bacteria or a viral infection is thought to be responsible, other times traumatic injuries, circulatory disorders or neurological problems) (23).
Whilst most patients recover in 2 to 3 days, a study has found that patients who were treated with vitamin E recovered faster and were likely to have up to 75 percent of their hearing back before leaving hospital (24). Patients that were given vitamin E also showed greater healing when returning for a check up than those who were not.
11. Vitamin E Improves The Effects Of Some Medical Treatments
Cancer treatments can include dialysis and radiation. Whilst these treatments are good overall they can sometimes result in unwanted side effects such as lung issues, hair loss, fibrosis and nerve damage. The antioxidant properties of vitamin E lessen the severity of the side effects brought on by certain medicines (25).
12. Vitamin E Is Necessary To Prevent Ataxia With Vitamin E Deficiency
Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency is a disorder where your body is unable to utilise the vitamin E you receive through your diet. It is a multisystem disorder that can affect your brain, spine, heart and eyes (26).
Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency may also result in areflexia of the lower limbs and problems with movement coordination. Vitamin E supplements are a crucial part of the treatment of the disorder (27).
13. Vitamin E Is Good For Your Heart
Consuming a vitamin E rich diet has been linked to a lowered risk of the development of heart disease for both men and women who are middle aged (28) but the main reason that vitamin E is good for the heart is that it can prevent the likelihood of a heart attack by fighting against the development of atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis is a condition where the arteries begin to narrow and harden. Atherosclerosis is particularly dangerous because the symptoms are not always recognized. Some symptoms of the condition include;
Being unable to draw breath comfortably
A pain in your arm or your leg (caused by a blockage in a major artery)
Muscle weakness usually in your legs
Feeling confused (caused by a blockage to a major artery that supplies the brain with oxygenated blood)
Oxidation of LDL cholesterol is a leading cause of atherosclerosis which can be prevented by vitamin E supplementation (29).
14. Vitamin E Increases The Lifespan Of Cells
Extending the life of cells and keeping cells healthier for longer can extend the amount of years we live.
Vitamin E’s effects on longevity have been studied on mice in Argentina and Spain and results have shown that the vitamin E supplements have heightened neuromuscular function and extended the overall lifespan of the mice (30).
The mice to which the vitamin E supplements were administered had much lower free radical activity and reaction levels as well as much less oxidative induced damage to the mitochondria of their cells (31).
Being the powerful antioxidant that it is, vitamin E inhibits the damage free radicals inflict on proteins and lipids in the body, which slows the rate of aging.
15. Vitamin E Inhibits Platelet Aggregation
Platelets are small blood cells that aggregate (begin to clot) when your body is injured in order to stop bleeding.
When clotting becomes too severe it can turn dangerous as a clot could become loose and travel to the heart or brain and block the supply of oxygenated blood resulting in a stroke or heart attack. Vitamin E protects against excessive clotting (32).
15 Best Vitamin E Foods
Mangoes contain the fiber pectin. Pectin is a soluble fiber which helps to slow digestion by drawing water out of your digestive tract and forming a gel. Pectin can control diarrhea, aid and regulate digestion, lower your cholesterol and aid weight loss. The natural digestive enzymes found in mangoes also cut down on excess acidity in the digestive tract.
Mangoes are very high in iron. Iron is particularly important for pregnant women as a lack of iron can lead to becoming anemic. Anemia is a condition where the body, due to low iron levels, does not produce enough red blood cells. This is dangerous at a low red blood cell count reduces the flow of oxygenated blood to vital organs. Other symptoms of anemia include;
Feeling constantly fatigued
A rapid heart beat
Trouble catching your breath
Feeling dizzy or light headed
High levels of vitamin C and A in mangoes boosts the production of collagen in the skin. Collagen is the most important structural protein in the skin and connective tissues. A lack of collagen can have negative affects on your skin, your joints and blood vessels. Mangoes can also open up clogged pores on the face. Clogged pores are a leading cause of acne.
Vitamin B6 is found in abundance in mangoes. Vitamin B6 works to maintain and improves the function of the brain. Vitamin B6 helps connect neurotransmitters that are responsible for our moods and sleep patterns.
Green mangoes can be used as a natural treatment for heat stroke. Heat strokes occurs usually as a result of physical over exertion in high temperatures. Heat stroke is very dangerous as it can seriously damage your vital organs as well as your brain. If you suspect someone is suffering from heat stroke, call an ambulance immediately.
Almonds contain phosphorous, a natural mineral. Phosphorous is an important mineral when it comes to bone health, including the growth phase and ongoing maintenance. Phosphorous works hand in hand with calcium to create a robust skeletal structure. A phosphorous deficiency can result in osteoporosis (weak bones), tooth decay and pain in the joints.
Phosphorous also keep your kidneys healthy. Phosphorous ensures that all the waste in the kidneys are expelled from the body via urination and excretion.
Almonds are high in Magnesium. Magnesium performs a host a functions within the body including keeping blood pressure at a normal level and the heart beating regularly. The magnesium in almonds also make them a good food choice for diabetics as it also keeps blood sugar levels under control. Magnesium also affects our moods and a deficiency can lead to feeling upset or depressed.
When LDL cholesterol (the bad cholesterol) reacts with free radicals within the body the process of LD oxidation occurs. When LDL cholesterol becomes oxidized it will begin to cause damage to its surrounding tissues. Almond skins are a rich source of polyphenol antioxidants which have been linked to LDL cholesterol oxidation prevention.
Almonds are energy boosting and hunger suppressing. Manganese (an element essential to the creation of enzymes), riboflavins and copper in almonds keep your metabolism and energy production levels high and the protein and fiber keep you feeling fuller for longer.
3. Sunflower Seeds
Sunflower seeds contain polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats, often called the “good” fats. These fats raise the levels of HDL cholesterol while simultaneously lowering the levels of LDL cholesterol within the body.
Selenium is a trace mineral found in sunflower seeds. Selenium keeps your immune system strong and aids cognitive function. It is also important for fertility in both women and men and a deficiency of the mineral has been directly linked to infertility and the destruction of spermatozoa in men.
Selenium also fosters DNA cell repair and rehabilitation as well as balancing thyroid hormone metabolism.
Sunflower seeds are a good source of protein. Protein is considered a building block of every tissue in the body and is a constant source of fuel for energy. The protein in sunflower seeds works to build and then maintain muscles and tissues.
Tomatoes contain lycopene, making it an incredibly effective antioxidant. Lycopene actively seeks out and destroys cancer causing free radicals. It has shown positive results in preventing stomach, breast, cervical, prostate, rectum and esophageal cancers.
Lycopene also works to prevent serum lipid oxidation. This action protects against the onset of heart disease. Consuming tomatoes regularly cuts down on LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood.
Chlorogenic acid and coumaric acid are both found in tomatoes. These acids protect against nitrosamines, a harmful carcinogen that is found in cigarettes.
The potassium in tomatoes acts as a vasodilator (something that can reduce the pressure and tension within arteries and blood vessels and increases circulation) which lowers hypertension (blood pressure). Lowered hypertension takes strain off of the heart preventing damage.
Tomatoes can prevent urinary tract infections as well as bladder cancer. Tomatoes have an incredibly high water content which stimulates urination, making tomatoes a diuretic. The high water content aids in eliminating excess uric acids, salts, fat and water from the body.
Tomatoes have also been linked to the elimination or prevention of formin bladder stones which are caused by crystallization of urine that has not been expelled from the bladder. Bladder stones are also referred to as kidney stones, cystoliths or calculus. These stones can block urine flow or irritate the walls of the bladder and lead to;
A burning feeling while urinating
Needing to urinate often
Having difficulty urinating
Dark, discoloured urine
Avocados are incredibly nutritious. They have high levels of folate, Vitamins C, K, B and E, potassium and iron. Avocados do not sodium or cholesterol and are low in saturated fat whilst being high in healthy fats and fiber. The healthy fats and fiber help you to feel satiated and is therefore a good food for those trying to lose weight.
Avocados can prevent halitosis (bad breath). Halitosis is caused primarily by indigestion. The fiber content in avocados promotes healthy digestion. Avocados also contain antioxidant and antibacterial flavonoids which kill harmful bacteria found in your mouth.
Avocados have a nourishing effect on dry and damaged skin and hair. Lycopene and beta-carotene are both found in high amounts in avocados and have a moisturising effect on skin cells which can prevent wrinkles and rapid aging. Carotenoids present in avocados can reduce damage done to the skin by UV rays.
Avocados are good for liver health and can actually reduce damage already present in the liver. The organic compounds found in avocados tone the liver tissue and which makes it more resistant to damage and disease.
Avocados contain vitamin B6 which can provide relief from morning sickness for pregnant women. Morning sickness is felt by nearly 50 percent of pregnant women and can be debilitating especially in the first trimester.
The potassium in avocados plays an important role in balancing fluids within the body. When fluids become unbalanced it can have adverse effects on the kidneys.
6. Butternut Squash
Butternut squash is a great source of carotenoids. Carotenoids are organic fat-soluble pigments usually found in foods that have an orange or reddish colour. Carotenoids are important as they help to strengthen your heart and reduce incidences of heart disease and failure. They do this by acting as an antioxidant against chronic diseases.
Butternut squash is full of retinol, or vitamin A. Vitamin A has various health benefits including protecting against damage to the eyes and skin as well as protecting your cells from damage caused by oxidation. A vitamin A deficiency could result in the following symptoms;
Trouble seeing at night
Thinning of the cornea (the eye’s translucent protective layer)
Throat and or chest infections
Delayed or stunted bone growth and development in young children and teenagers
Psoriasis or itching and flaking of the skin
Beta-carotene also relieves symptoms of asthma. The antiinflammatory properties of beta-carotene sooth inflamed bronchioli within the lungs which ease coughing and attacks.
With a single cup yielding about 6 grams of fiber, butternut squash is efficient in aiding digestion and combating diarrhea and other digestional issues.
Butternut squash contains high levels of manganese which aids the absorption of calcium, maintains the healthy structure of our bones and heightens mineral density within the spinal column.
7. Wheat Germ
Wheat germ has a multitude of healthy effects on the immune system. Wheat germ contains a protein known as hydrolysates which has been linked to increasing the activities of antioxidants within the body. These antioxidants work to seek out and wipe out free radicals and other various microorganisms that could be disease causing.
Wheat germ can increase your stamina and energy levels. Wheat germ contains octacosanol, a natural chemical that is ergogenic (performance enhancing) in nature. Octacosanol enhances physical performance as it regulates energy producing biochemical pathways in the body. The protein in wheat germ is also responsible for speeding up the healing of damaged tissue in muscles.
The thiamine, niacin and folate in wheat germ are important for the process of cellular metabolism which is where the nutrients in the glucose, carbohydrates and lipids we consume are transformed into accessible energy to be used by various cells.
Hazelnuts are good for your brain and could slow brain aging. A study carried out on rats found that hazelnuts improved their memories and lessened feelings of anxiety.
Hazelnuts are high in good fats which protect the health of your heart.The oleic acid in hazelnuts lower HDL cholesterol and raise levels of LDL cholesterol. Oleic acid also reverses insulin production effects, making hazelnuts a good choice for diabetic patients.
Kiwis are packed with vitamin C (almost twice that of oranges and lemons) making them a powerful antioxidant. These antioxidant properties can reduce the risk of inflammatory diseases within the body. Vitamin C boosts the activity of the immune system and prevent scurvy as well as treating cancer and lead toxicity. A lack of vitamin C can be potentially harmful and some symptoms of a deficiency include;
Spots or rashes on the skin
Feeling constantly fatigued
Pain in the muscles
Bleeding from the gums
Sudden weight loss
Losing your appetite
Vitamin C and other phytochemicals found in kiwis facilitate iron absorption within the body, this action can help prevent against developing an iron deficiency (when your red blood cell count dips too low).
The antioxidants and serotonin found in kiwis can regulate your sleep cycle and is used to treat various sleep disorders.Flavonoids in kiwis also modulate receptors in the body which induce sleep.
Kiwis contain an enzyme called actinidain which works to dissolve proteins which can provide relief to those suffering from irritable bowel syndrome.
Kiwis are a rich source of polyphenols which work to protect cardiovascular health.
10. Turnip Greens
Turnip greens are high in calcium, the mineral responsible for keeping your bones and teeth strong. Calcium also plays an important role in reducing obesity and fighting against cancer of the colon.
The more we age, the weaker and more poros our bones become. It is vital for the elderly to take some form of calcium supplement as they could develop a serious deficiency which is characterized by the following symptoms;
Feeling constantly itchy
Dry and flaky skin
A tingling or numbness in your fingers and or toes
Hair becoming coarse
Personality changes such as feeling more irritable or depressed
Difficulty swallowing food or drink
Nails becoming brittle
Bones breaking very easily
Feeling weak and fatigued
Delays in the development and growth of children
Abnormal heart rhythms and blood pressure
Calcium can also prevent depression in women linked with the premenstrual period, reduce the risk of developing kidney stones, control your blood pressure, strengthen your jaw, keep your gums healthy and strengthen the muscles in the heart.
Turnip greens are detoxifying to the body. We are exposed to toxins through the environment and certain foods we eat every day. Toxin related injuries may occur when your cells become malignant (infectious). Turnip greens are loaded with antioxidant nutrients that boost both phases of detoxification activities within the body.
The vitamin A found in turnip greens keep your lungs healthy and protect against carcinogenics you may be exposed to through smoking cigarettes or inhaling secondhand smoke. Vitamin A decreases the chance of developing lung cancer and other lung diseases such as emphysema, a disease where the bronchioles in the lungs begin to harden and it becomes more difficult and painful to inhale enough oxygen.
11. Swiss Chard
Swiss chard is a great food for anyone suffering from diabetes. An important function of the flavonoid syringic acid found in swiss chard is the regulation of sugar levels in the blood. Syringic acid constrains the action of an enzyme called alpha-glucosidase which results in less carbohydrates being turned into simple sugars. This action allows the body to maintain a steady blood sugar level and decreases the intense sugar spikes and drops that are so harmful to those living with diabetes.
Swiss chard is a fantastic source of vitamin K. Vitamin K can boost cognitive activity, prevent the onset of heart disease, ensure that calcium is sent to the bones and does not build up in the arteries or heart, protect against pneumonia, strengthen the walls of your arteries and blood vessels, help to stave off osteoporosis, fight against the onset of Alzheimer’s, improve your insulin sensitivity, reduce blood clots and prevent and reduce bruising.
The copper and iron found in swiss chard increases the flow of oxygenated blood to all of your vital organs.
The pigments betalains and various other antioxidants present in swiss chard can defend the cells in the brain from the risk of mutation, reduce the amount of free radicals and protect your DNA from being damaged.
12. Plant Oils
Plant oils are the fats that are extracted from the seeds of certain plants and sometimes the plants themselves. Examples of plant oils include;
Almond oil and more
Plant oils are exceptionally good for your skin. Direct application and ingestion can protect your skin from sun and wind damage as well as protecting the skin cells from damage inflicted by free radicals. Plant oils also repress the production of sebum which can result in oily skin. Plant oils also boost the body's production of collagen which keeps the skin's elasticity.
When consuming plant oils it is better to use the organic kind.
Parsley is a herb high in various minerals and vitamins. Parsley has diuretic effects which can be helpful to those suffering from edema, a condition where a person retains excess amounts of fluids in the body and eventually causes the body to begin to swell.
Parsley is an anti inflammatory which soothes inflamed joints and can be a useful natural remedy for rheumatoid arthritis (a chronic condition that affects over 2 million Americans yearly where the joints become irritated and inflamed resulting in painful, swollen joints).
Consuming parsley regularly can speed up the action of removing uric acid from the body. A buildup of uric acid in the joints can contribute to the development of rheumatoid arthritis.
Olives contain various nutritious plant compounds, including oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, which act as powerful anti inflammatories. Olives also contain the plant compound quercetin which plays a role in improving overall heart health and lowering hypertension.
Studies carried out on animals have also showed that the plant compounds present in olives have had positive effects on maintaining bone density and structure.
15. Pine Nuts
Pine nuts contain high levels of the chemical element manganese. Just an ounce of pine nuts gives you your entire recommended daily intake of manganese. Manganese protects against the onset of osteoporosis, fights free radicals, keeps your sugar levels under control, keeps the thyroid in good health, can ease symptoms linked to PMS, is used to treat sprains and regulates your metabolism.
Low levels of manganese have also been linked to an increase in the occurrence of epileptic fits.
A few symptoms of being manganese deficient include;
Problems with infertility in women
Rising blood pressure
Problems with hearing
Problems with sight
Tremors and shivers
Retarded bone growth
The protein in pine nuts makes them a good energy boosting snack.