Best Under Bed Gun Safe

The Stealth Defense Vault DV652 Gun Safe is our best under bed gun safe which can keep your guns in great condition as a neat weapon storage solution for safety for your family. You can use it in the dark and it has a steel body so it is very sturdy. With an illuminated keypad, the under bed gun safe has been made to the highest quality so it is CA DOJ approved as an under bed gun safe that is of high quality.

Our step-up pick is the Monster Vault Under the Bed Safe and it can help you achieve various activities as it is of heavy duty and it is versatile for paintball, target shooting and the like. It is very reliable for most shooting sports and for military usage. With its flexibility, the under bed gun safe can be great for army use and can go with heavy use or for home defense as well.

The budget pick is the Gun Casket Dual Pistol Electronic Safe and as an effective storage for guns, this under bed gun safe is also highly adjustable and is of good quality. It works great and there is plenty of room to spare with this under bed gun safe. With enough room for your guns, it is a great under bed gun safe for shooters to gain easy access with a reasonably priced safe.

A Little Background

Keeping guns under the bed is a good idea because it helps gun owners manage the space that they have in their home or space. Gun safes that are designed for under the bed use are usually those that can contain long rifles and the like and are very stealthy. Part of a gun safe’s operation should be keeping your guns at an accessible point without giving them away to people who drop by in your room.

How We Picked

In choosing the best under bed gun safe, you should at least consider the following factors:
Size of your bed: you must know how big your bed is to fit the safe in conveniently.
Dimensions of the safe: you must measure your safe to make sure it will fit under the bed.
Durability: the durability of the safe should be considered so that it will not be prone to prying or to breakage.
Amount or size of guns and ammo to store: consider how many guns you will need to store inside the under bed gun safe before you buy one.

Our Pick


Stealth Defense Vault DV652 Gun Safe

Our best under bed gun safe is the Stealth Defense Vault DV652 Gun Safe. Shelving your guns with this under bed gun safe is stealthy as you can disable the beeps in this in wall gun safe to keep it safe from children and even more secure than ever. Storing ammo is okay with this under bed gun safe due to the locking mechanism and very straightforward operation.
The durable and protective under bed gun safe gives your guns increased durability in an easy way. Moreover, it feels durable and can keep your guns safe with a nice quality. The under bed gun safe is superb in quality and durability and it is also wear-resistant. It seems to be well made and is quite tough for any occasion whatsoever.
The under bed gun safe gives you a through concealment and it has a hidden storage feature. When space is limited, the under bed gun safe can be useful due to its interior and exterior that is durable. With hardware for setup and mounting, your guns can be hidden in plain sight with this under bed gun safe. You will love the design of this under bed gun safe so no one knows your guns.
The hinges operate smoothly in this durable and reliable under bed gun safe and all the instructions are included for ease of setup on this gun cabinet. You can get compliments with this reliable under bed gun safe and it can also house jewelry and the like. Those who should not have access to guns will have a hard time accessing this under bed gun safe.
It will last for a while for its durable build and it is an under bed gun safe for the price. With durable materials, it can hold large guns so easily and it is made of very good quality material and a good weight to keep gun thieves away. It has lots of features as an under bed gun safe that is made out of quality of the materials and is of heavy duty.
A perfect solution for under bed storages, it is very durable as an under bed gun safe for its construction and material. It is the real deal that can be used in multiple ways for storing guns. It will keep everything in place as an under bed gun safe for protection. Moreover, you will be really glad with the durability of this under the bed safe.
Coming in with a stealth mode, the under bed gun safe can be used secretly in the dark and it is also not too bulky to use at all but it is very protective of your rifle, which is great for home defense purposes. It fits just right for most beds and comes with all mounting hardware for an under bed gun safe that is also a shotgun safe.
As a heavy duty option, this is a fantastic safe with a nice size and it holds the weapons just fine within its 14-gauge steel design and construction. The keypad of this under bed gun safe illuminates when touched so you can see what you are typing. Made of excellent quality materials, the 5-point slide locking bar keeps it easy to use overall. It is an absolutely perfect under bed gun safe with plenty of room to spare.
You can depend upon this under bed gun safe for secure weapon storage. There is also a free dean safe rifle sock that measures 52 inches. There is plenty of extra room in this under bed gun safe for up to 2 long guns as much as possible.
It is quite heavy so it will deter crime in the long run. The under bed gun safe also comes with an esl5 electronic lock and it can give you an easy access that is authorized for guns. It is one of the best high security gun safes in the market today and it is solid for what it is. The backlight of this under bed gun safe can help you easily store your guns.
The under bed gun safe can house a common shotgun and has an electronic lock as well as it can handle any pistol or handgun. It is of very high quality and the under bed gun safe can be your go-to firearm safety device for fast access. Moreover, it is truly engineered as an under bed gun safe for your home defense weapon.
It’s a great deal as an under bed gun safe that is quite strong. Setting it up is a breeze with 4 mounting holes are pre-drilled. The under bed gun safe measures 6 x 52 x 14 inches and is a very solid safe to consider that is quite unique in terms of design without your gun getting scratched.
You can open the door in a breeze to access your rifle or shotgun and any other riffle safe will not be enough to match the standards of this under bed gun safe. One of the best under the bed safes out there, the amount of ammunition you can put here is astounding.
Also applicable for stacking, the under bed gun safe is so safe to have it locked up on the ground under your bed. It can store pretty much anything and is quite easy to set up. It will be working okay for the years to come to completely take good care of your firearms.
Underneath your bed, you will find this under bed gun safe a reliable safe with a flat top design for easy storage and stacking. With the correct combination, it is better than most under bed gun safes out there. The foam-padded tray also does not scratch your guns at all.
To keep your firearms within arm’s reach, bolting it down is necessary. As an amazing value at 74 lbs, the under bed gun safe can take good care of your guns while you’re sleeping.

Flaws but Not Dealbrakers

While not deal breakers, the Stealth Defense Vault DV652 Gun Safe has a couple of cons that are minor, such as the fact that it does not have a backup key, but you can easily replace the battery from the outside. This is a common and unavoidable flaw on most electronic lock safes anyway.

Step-up Pick


Monster Vault Under the Bed Safe

The Monster Vault Under the Bed Safe is our step-up pick for the best under bed gun safe. With a desirable design, the under bed gun safe is good with most gun calibers and it is of good value and has a perfect construction for your guns and accessories. With an excellent durability, it allows you to keep your guns well protected with a durable design. The under bed gun safe gives you stealth and is durable and extremely easy to use.
Perfect for indoor use, the under bed gun safe has been made form the best materials ever and it can be a great security measure to protect against prying in the perfect way as much as possible. The under bed gun safe can help you lock and secure your guns with no lock picking threats at all.
If you would like to protect your guns then this under bed gun safe is a considerable option. The bottom of the cabinet is safe to protect your valuables and your guns. The safe works great in the best manner possible and the paint is powder coated so it is a durable and reliable under bed gun safe that can store potentially dangerous items and keep them away from kids and intruders.
You can also store magazines in this under bed gun safe and you can also use it for the storage of important documents in a quick and easy way. You can feel assured with this under bed gun safe while you are at home with the kids. It is also good for smaller items other than guns and the top and bottom construction of this under bed gun safe is of very good quality.
With a decent amount of space for your guns and ammo, one will be pleasantly surprised with this under bed gun safe to provide some protection to your firearms. It is a well made and reliable under bed gun safe and handles your guns pretty well. It seems durable in compared to other under bed gun safes out there, making it of great quality.
It is a very heavy duty under bed gun safe to consider that has great quality in terms of weight at 140 pounds. It is a pretty heavy safe to deter crime and is great for hunting supplies as well. Those who do not have enough closet space can depend upon this under bed gun safe for its cold rolled steel construction that is very durable.
What’s more, the under bed gun safe is also a compact vault to consider for trucks and the like. The under bed gun safe is great as a solution to deter burglars from your guns. It is quickly accessible for authorized use and contains 3 cubic feet of storage.
You can have it bolted to the floor for added security and the under bed gun safe works in a very functional way. You can also depend upon the slide out drawer for this awesome under bed gun safe for the storage of your guns. It also works for SUVs and it has neat keypad locking so it can keep thieves out and keep kids out.
With 100 pounds of capacity, it does the job very well as a really durable and reliable under bed gun safe which can also be taken into camping trips. It is quite huge inside and is well worth the cost as a neat and reliable safe to keep under the bed. It will last a long time due to the durability of the under bed gun safe and it is also a horizontal safe to keep stuff inside for your guns.
It is a neat home safe and is also an awesome vault for your guns. With a slide out drawer mechanism, the under bed gun safe is a solid safe to consider for the money and the design and is a sturdy safe overall in which everything works perfectly as intended. With a digital lock, this is an awesome vault for your gun with the metal casing giving and bringing durability with this lockable drawer.
There is a lot of room to spare with this under bed gun safe for those who have little closet space. It is also better than nothing and it measures 28 x 48 x 7 inches. It is definitely strong enough to hold guns and it fits perfectly to secure large firearms and the like. It is also easily programmable as a neat and reliable under bed gun safe and being so heavy makes it thief-resistant and a deterrent to crime.
You can also take this under bed gun safe to your travel vehicle or as an under the bed safe. What’s more, the drawer is huge to keep 3 long guns as much as possible. It is definitely strong enough with an increased functionality for the combination lock. It is strong and sturdy and it comes with detailed instructions.
The under bed gun safe can work fully loaded and there is a key backup with nothing to worry about. This vault has a totally large capacity for an under bed gun safe that is reliable.

Budget Pick


Gun Casket Dual Pistol Electronic Safe

Our budget pick is the Gun Casket Dual Pistol Electronic Safe and with really excellent quality, the under bed gun safe can withstand a lot of abuse in the long run and it is easy to use. It is more than enough for most shooters with good durability even through the toughest conditions. Made of great quality, it is much better than expected and is a reliable under bed gun safe to have.
With a rolled steel construction, the under bed gun safe has an electronic lock and it can also keep other valuables safe. It is great to deter kids or thieves and keep them away from your guns. The inside height of this under bed gun safe is sufficient and the solid steel construction is also backed by a protected finish to keep it from rusting.
You can improve your home security with this under bed gun safe and it can keep children from harm in the long run. With good quality overall, you can prevent unauthorized access with this reliable under bed gun safe which is also great for keeping valuables where they should be.
Among the best in the industry today, the under bed gun safe can keep consoles and has both electronic and manual locking systems. The combination lock and the design of the safe makes it stand out from the rest. With enough drawers to store items, the case can be mounted easily to the floor and fit various magazines. It has an electronic lock and it works well under beds and the like for easy access.
You can gain access fast with this handgun safe that is of sturdy construction. It is very durable and the bottom is pre-drilled for easy setup. With a keyless entry option, the under bed gun safe gives you quick and easy access that will never rust at all.
Including all mounting hardware needed, the key lock mechanism is easy to use and the under bed gun safe can also keep a single stack 9 mm. Nearly any gun stores easily under the bed on this gun safe which can also be used on road trips.
With a manual entry option, the under bed gun safe is sturdy and is of high quality and it can store up to 2 pistols. The key lock is very reliable in this dual pistol safe which is very simple to use. The measurement of 10 x 7 x 4 inches makes it the perfect size for a superb and affordable under bed gun safe with an electronic lock.
Being easy to use, the under bed gun safe can keep your guns properly secured under the bed so you will be very pleased with the design. It fits a handgun easily and has a low profile design that is stealthy. Made of anodized aluminum, it will never rust at all.

Best Under Bed Gun Safe with Interior Light


Liberty Handgun HD-300 Quick Combo Vault

The Liberty Handgun HD-300 Quick Combo Vault measures 13 x 10 x 8 inches and it fits well under the bed with great visibility. It has 4 pre-drilled holes and it is also quite sturdy. What’s more, the lock opening is quite easy to use and it can also be used on nightstands as a neat and reliable under bed gun safe with a key backup.
Made with a steel construction, the under bed gun safe is easy to program and it can be depended upon for a long time with its auto-opening design and features. As a 16-gauge under bed gun safe, it has a lighted interior and it can keep other small valuables for your needs.
Running on a 9V battery, the under bed gun safe is praised for quality and it can keep a quick and secure access to your valuables and guns. It is of nice quality and it can also keep passports as an under bed gun safe with a soft touch combo box. Protecting your family is a breeze with this easy to set up and reliable under bed gun safe for your closet shelves.
The interior shelf is durable and safe on this handgun vault and it is also a great safe with a sturdy steel construction. With an electronic combo key lock, it also handles phones and tablets and other gadgets. With a quick combo locking mechanism, the light inside keeps this under bed gun safe very functional.
The angled front door protects your guns and valuables. It holds 2 guns conveniently as a vault for firearms. It is so easy to use and it provides secure access without compromise at all. The under bed gun safe is quite easy to open and it gives you access to your firearm whenever you need it.
With combination options of up to 1,000 or more, the under bed gun safe is there when you need it the most and it also comes with mounting holes for securing easily. It can fit up to 3 magazines and multiple handguns as well. It can help you keep guns away from little hands and the lighted interior of the under bed gun safe provides easy access.
It keeps firearms accessible whenever you need it. The under bed gun safe can also house medication and the like. You can easily mount it to a solid surface or under the bed. With a key backup, the under bed gun safe is backed by a 2-year replacement warranty.

Best Under Bed Gun Safe with Biometric Lock


Artemis Biometric Quick Access Handgun Safe

The Artemis Biometric Quick Access Handgun Safe is made out of polycarbonate plastic polymer and comes with a security cable for locking it tightly. The under bed gun safe is great for a secure place for your guns to make them easily accessible whenever you need it the most.
Being extremely durable, the under bed gun safe is a high-security gun safe that can fit a larger gun or more and can also accommodate handguns and ammo as you want it. The under bed gun safe also works with the key and it is made out of sturdy plastic polymer materials.
While it is small enough, it is also durable and great for quick access as a neat and reliable under bed gun safe that is small and inconspicuous so it is low profile, preventing unauthorized access. Moreover, the under bed gun safe is also easily programmable and is also quite child resistant and a deterrent to crime and theft. The under bed gun safe has a biometric panel for ease of use.
The fingerprint function works great in this under bed gun safe wherein 4 AA batteries included so you can use it right away. The under bed gun safe can be programmed easily and it is also quite virtually unbreakable for thieves. The gun safe is very simple in its operation and you will be very confident of its safety.
Great for people for their firearm’s safety, if you have kids then you should use this under bed gun safe because it is easy to use and it can be used for strategically placed weapons. The tubular style key of this under bed gun safe works as intended and the under bed gun safe is also of high quality in terms of components, making it easy to program.
Allowing for quick access, the under bed gun safe can also be used for a night stand. Likewise, the under bed gun safe also comes with 4 mounting holes for easy installation. The interior of the safe is so safe for your guns and it also allows pistol access whenever you need it. You can keep your guns in this under bed gun safe which can handle a lot of items.
It is a neat hand gun safe which you can store under your bed. It holds fingerprints very well to secure your items and is great for firearm handling. It can handle up to two guns and it uses the unique radial vector multi-point technology to ensure easy access. Anyone who is needing a gun safe can be assured of the added security with this under bed gun safe that can take fingerprints from multiple angles.
Made of high quality materials and a foam interior to keep your items well, the under bed gun safe can help you be very confident in its security. It will also fit in a nightstand and keep your guns accessible whenever you need it. It has a biometric fingerprint scanner and has a low battery alarm.
The under bed gun safe is easy to use while applying pressure and the safety keys are included. Moreover, it is secure and safe to keep accidents from happening. The gun safe fits a 1911 and a large gun. The under bed gun safe has about 1 year of battery life and it gives you quick access.
You should buy this gun safe if you live with kids so you can add your fingerprint and keep your guns safe. The safe fits in a drawer and it can be accessed within a press of a finger. It is awesome and is very simple to store with no swiping required. Moreover, it works great for those who want to have access to their guns.
The under bed gun safe also securely closes and it stores up to 200 fingerprints for the best security possible. It can significantly reduce accidents and it is also extremely durable. As a gun safe, it gives you great access to your gun box when it is needed.
You can store larger handguns with this under bed gun safe for its quick accessibility and it also allows for accessible in a hurry. There is also a loud tamper alarm for wrong attempts. You can keep it discreetly and safely under your bed and it is also very secure without any issues at all.
After 5 unauthorized attempts, it will ring an alarm. The inside material of this under bed gun safe is very safe for your guns. It can take up to 4,000 scanner operations and it is also quite simple to program. It can keep a long barrel revolver and snuggly fit your firearm inside.
The under bed gun safe is also great for pistol access as it is working great for a quickly accessible set of firearms. The thick padded interior makes it safe and accessible with 2 handguns. Made of polycarbonate plastic polymer, the under bed gun safe also fits larger handguns.

Best Under Bed Gun Safe for a Handgun


Secure It TG1100 Hand Gun Safe

The Secure It TG1100 Hand Gun Safe gives you a compact fit for your guns. Coming with two keys, the under bed gun safe can also be installed under the vehicle seat. Moreover, it holds a full-size pistol as a convenient safe in which the storage is easy.
The under bed gun safe is quite dependable and it is also applicable for your equipment. Moreover, the safe also meets TSA guidelines. The safe will fit under your bed and it can handle any conceal carry gun or a box of ammo. The under bed gun safe is also great for airline travel.
It is a well-built and reliable under bed gun safe in terms of quality and it works fine for its design. Moreover, the under bed gun safe also comes with the 1500 lbs test to add extra protection for your guns on the go. It is a totally reliable and secure gun safe that does not disappoint for its quality.
The under bed gun safe can store handguns as you like it and it has a permanent mounting cable for the safety of your sensitive items. Moreover, it is perfect for traveling as a solid little box for keeping your guns safe as a portable safe and an under bed gun safe.
It also fits large pistols and it can also be placed in dresser whenever you like it. Being lined with foam inside to keep your guns free from being scratched, the under bed gun safe is quite solid in its design. It can also handle revolvers and it is a secure and safe gun safe that can be one of the best hand gun safes ever made for your personal items’ safety.
It fits N-frame revolvers and the under bed gun safe is also safe against attempts of burglary with the all steel construction. Your guns and ammo will not be going anywhere with this reliable and sturdy under bed gun safe that is made from 21-gauge steel. Moreover, the amount of foam on this under bed gun safe keeps your guns safe and free from scratching and damage.
It is quite easy to unlock the safe and this handgun case is also quite ample at 9 x 6 inches in size. The under bed gun safe can also be used for desk drawers and it easily fits a handgun of most calibers. With great value overall, it can fit any hand gun as the box is square and secure for your pistol as a neat and reliable pistol safe.

Best Under Bed Gun Safe for AR Rifles


Hornady Rapid Safe AR Gun Locker

The Hornady Rapid Safe AR Gun Locker helps you access your items fast and it helps your items to be secured inside the 14-gauge steel construction. It can handle firearm accessories as well as shotguns. It is a dependable safe to keep your guns protected. As a perfect companion for safety, the lock strength is superb so it is safe and ready for handgun safety.
With RFID-enabled tags, it is quite thick and is touch-free entry. It has an included cable spring loaded door which ensures the security of your guns. It has a variety of security options and is certified to keep your guns away from thieves. Running on both AC and battery power, it can fit under a bed and gives you tamper-proof security on the go. It survived pick tests and is ready for firearm storage. It is also a child-resistant lock box and it meets TSA requirements.
Surviving drop tests, it is a convenient gun safe for firearm storage. It is great for added security and it is handy for those who want to instantly access the safe. There is a hinge attack resistance for anti-pry purposes and the exterior housing is quite sturdy. It meets ASTM international safety standards and can be used on any location.
Passing a lot of saw tests, the gun safe can be mounted in a closet as well for child resistance and for tactical length rifles. With 2 internal hardened locking lugs, it gives you a lot of convenience and it has pry resistance. It has a fully enclosed design as well.

Best Under Bed Gun Safe with a Compact Design


Locker Down LD2011X Console Safe

The Locker Down LD2011X Console Safe has a great design and it has a floor console feature. With a black powder coat finish, it has a sturdy door hinge and a stylish look. Measuring a total of 15 x 6 inches, you have satisfaction ensured with this spring assisted gun safe that is durable and innovative overall. It is powered and backed by a 4 digit combination lock for safekeeping.
It has a lot of space that can be used potentially. It is also quite easy to install and is better than others when it comes down to space.

Best Under Bed Gun Safe with Electronic Lock


American Security Defense Vault Gun Safe

The American Security Defense Vault Gun Safe depends upon its esl5 electronic lock plus the 4 pre-cut anchor holes. The gun safe measures 13 x 43 inches and has a reliable lock so it is quite a safe choice made of 14-gauge steel. With an illuminated keypad, it is foam-padded for gun safety.
With mounting hardware, it has a slide-out gun tray and is a great under bed safe for heavy gauge steel and is good when space is limited. With a 5-point locking bar, it is a great defense vault.

Best Under Bed Gun Safe with a Steel Cable


Caesar Safe Electronic Digital Gun Safe

The Caesar Safe Electronic Digital Gun Safe is powered by 4 AA batteries, can be used on a car or udner the bed and has a tough construction made of solid steel. It has a latch system for locking plus 2 keys for override purposes. There is also a tethering cable for security purposes. The safe is backed by a 1-year warranty.

The Competition

Other under bed gun safes are not totally secure and had flaws in their design. It is important that a gun safe that is stored under the bed should be totally safe and secure for your guns and ammo and should be easily accessed.

Other Frequently Asked Questions

Q: Is storing guns under the bed a safe way to protect your family?
A: Gun safes under the bed provide a space-saving way of protecting your family for easy access to your guns with the right storage.
Q: Is fireboard or sheetrock good at keeping gun safes insulated?
A: In most cases , it may insulate you but it is not enough because of the very fact that it is still paper material and is not too thick either.
Q: What should your gun safe use as a shelf liner?
A: You should use anything with closed cell or rubber so that it will not absorb moisture at all and your guns will be safe and sound.
Q: How much weight should the gun safe be if you don’t want to bolt it down to the floor?
A: At least 150 kg of gun safe with content is recommended so that you can feel assured that it will not be easily carried out of the house.
Q: What are gun locks?
A: Gun locks are simple devices that keep the gun safe and secure from accidental trigger and access. However, they are not enough for keeping guns away from kids, unless you put them in a gun safe.
Q: What is the minimum gauge requirement for gun safes per California DOJ?
A: The minimum gauge requirement for gun safes is 12-gauge for steel compound and 7-gauge for steel plate for the doors. Single-walled gun safes should be 12-gauge thick in steel construction.
Q: Which is better: manual dial combination or electronic lock combination for gun safes?
A: A manual dial combination can be slow and a hassle to operate but it will last for the many years to come, whereas electronic locks for safes are easy to use and to access, but are not applicable in places that are humid due to corrosion and malfunctioning.
Q: Why should your gun safe be fireproof?
A: Because items in the safe will not be safe if the temperature of the gun safe becomes too hot to handle.
Q: What is a recommended gun safe lining for your guns?
A: You should have a gun safe carpet or you can also use felt for carpeting the gun safe in its interior.
Q: Are padded gun cases okay to use?
A: You should consider a gun case that is rust-proof and at least silicone coated so that it will not affect the gun.
Q: What is a biometric gun safe and does it work well under the bed?
A: A biometric gun safe requires fingerprints to open. Some under bed safes do have biometrics but most of them still use keypad locking systems.
Q: Why should you keep guns away from kids and teens?
A: Because kids and teens may get injured due to improper gun handling. Such accidents can be intentional due to teen suicide and can also be used for homicide when not stored properly. A lot of teens get caught in firearm fatality and injuries each year, so you should keep your guns hidden in plain sight.
Q: When should you consider not owning guns at home?
A: If any family member is depressed or in a fit of rage or argument, guns should not be at home. Guns should not be mixed with drugs and alcohol as well. It is okay to have guns with children, provided that the guns are thoroughly safe using a gun safe and lock and that you educate your children about gun safety.
Q: What is a cable lock for guns?
A: It is a safety lock for keeping guns inoperable and is usually used along with a trigger lock.
Q: Why should you use the right ammo for your gun?
A: Because guns might not work well if you do not put the right ammo in them.
Q: How old should an ammo box be to be effective?
A: You should buy an ammo box that is less than 10 years old from the date of construction.
Q: What is a gun sock?
A: A gun sock is a sock that is worn over most rifles and long guns to keep them from rusting and getting scratched.
Q: Why is silicone important for a gun sock?
A: A silicone impregnated gun sock helps in keeping corrosion away from your rifle.
Q: Can you store gun cleaning supplies in gun safes?
A: As long as they are properly contained , you can keep the solvents in there so that the kids will not find out because they are toxic anyway.
Q: Should you have a gun cabinet or a gun safe?
A: It depends on whether you want to showcase guns or hide them in plain sight.

Wrapping It Up

As a whole, the Stealth Defense Vault DV652 Gun Safe is our best under bed gun safe for those who need easy access to their guns without a lot of space to waste.