Hypertrophy in Human Muscle

As it relates to strength and muscle, hypertrophy is simply the enlargement of a muscle belly due to an increase in the size of muscle cells – particularly the muscle’s fibres. This differs from hyperplasia which would equate to an increase in the number of fibres. Unlike hyperplasia, hypertrophy is a well-recognised and accepted physiological … Read more

Hyperplasia in Human Muscle

Hyperplasia can be defined as: “the growth of an organ due to an increase in theĀ numberĀ of cells.” The breast tissue undergoes hyperplasia in a lactating mother (1). The tonsils grow by hyperplasia to enhance the immune response in a child with a throat infection (2). As it relates to skeletal muscle, hyperplasia defines muscle growth … Read more

The FITT Principle of Training

Think of The FITT principle as a set of rules that must be adhered to in order to benefit from any form of fitness training program. These rules relate to the Frequency, Intensity, Type and Time (FITT) of exercise… These four principles of fitness training are applicable to individuals exercising at low to moderate training … Read more

Energy Systems in Sport & Exercise

Understanding energy systems underpins the study of exercise and the effect it has on the human body. Bioenergetics… or the study of energy flow through living systems is usually one of the first chapters in any good exercise physiology text. But the current model of human energy systems is being challenged… Recent research and practical … Read more

The Cardiovascular System and Exercise

The cardiovascular system serves five important functions (1) during exercise: Delivers oxygen to working muscles Oxygenates blood by returning it to the lungs Transports heat (a by-product of activity) from the core to the skin Delivers nutrients and fuel to active tissues Transports hormones Exercise places an increased demand on the cardiovascular system. Oxygen demand … Read more

Acclimatization To Altitude

Acclimatization to altitude has become an important part of the preparation process for athletes competing above 1500m (4921ft). Conditions above this level make physical activity more difficult and limits performance (2). But what is the most effective method for acclimation and can training at altitude improve performance at sea level? This article focuses on the … Read more